For the period of the Second World War, doctors observed that patients with simple injuries had an
enhanced chance of scratch elimination if hair follicle originated rising at the ends of the marked area.
It was firm that new skin cells were being grown-up in the hair cavities and travelling to the edging
injured skin. The next step was to linkage skin overhaul and hair progress.
Hair loss has many reasons. Amongst the most shared are:
The creation of DHT, which is accountable for male pattern hairlessness:
Advanceddecrease of hair cavities as we age:
Reduced blood supply to the hair cavities:
Destructionbecause of her actions, warmness, dying:
Scientists firm that the copper results smeared to the scalp improved sac size: reconstructed the blood
supply to hurt follicles: improved melanin fusion, essential to retain hair from turn-off white:
bettermedical fat under the scalp, desirable to produce thick,strong hair: elongated the hair growth phase:
reserved the creation of DHT: overhauled scalp harm; curedirritation: and produced the scalp to
stiffen.This all indications to a strong head of hair.
Copper peptides results translate this fine hair into heavier, complete, pigmented hair and it is
recommended that both be elements be used in mixture if you are challenging to re-grow hair. The copper
peptides have the additional advantage of decreasing the irritation and dying produced by minoxidil.
Copper peptides conducts are also useful after hair resettles. They rapiditycurative and cut the growing
time of new hair in half to only6 weeks. They can avoid hair loss because of chemo therapy if used earlier
or reason to re-grow quicker if used afterwards.
Though copper peptides results show inordinatepotential in hair re-establishment, one of its main
investigators, thinks its fore most advantage at this time is as an ordered scalp therapy applied once or
twice in a week to sustain strong hair and scalp.
Higher value products demand for chromatographic techniques. The techniques are used for
concentration, de salting and purification of protein preparation. When choosing a chromatographic
technique, a number of factors need to be put into consideration. These factors may include iso-
electric point, biological affinity, hydro-phobicity and molecular weight in proteins. Each of the above
properties can be exploited by different specific chromatographic methods. The following are the
chromatographic parameters that need to be considered; recovery, capacity and resolving power.
The following are different types of chromatography used in downstream processing
Gel filtration chromatography
Ion exchange chromatography
High performance liquid chromatography
Ion exchange chromatography
In adsorption chromatography, separation is done according to affinity of protein or any other
material. Affinity chromatography is a powerful and a highly selective technique of purification that
results in several purifications in a single step. This method is however expensive on industrial scale.
Affinity chromatography technique involves chemical interaction between solute molecules.
Gel filtration chromatography in downstream processing involves the separation on the basis of size
of the molecules. Molecular shape can also influence the process. Ion exchange involves selective
adsorption of electrically charged compounds. The compounds are adsorbed on the ion exchange resin
particles and this is done by electrostatic forces. High performance liquid chromatography is used to
separate proteins in aqueous solutions.
Dialysis and electro dialysis is a membrane separation technique that is used for the removal of
solutes that are low in weight and ions that are inorganic from a solution. The membranes are very
selective to size. Distillation is useful in downstream processing in recovering fuel alcohol and other
solvents from the media of fermentation. This is helpful in the production of potable spirits. Batch
distillation is useful in production of some whiskies although for continuous distillation is a method of
choice for other purposes.
Targets like recombinant proteins and many enzymes are intracellular in downstream processes.
Sometimes breaching of cytoplasm membrane and the cell wall can bring problems. This can occur
when the cell has a strong cell wall. The liberation of the DNA which can, in the long run increase
viscosity of suspension is some of the many problems that are associated with cell disruption. This
can affect further downstream processing. The DNAse addition can help to prevent this problem.
Heat is greatly released if the disruption that is involved is mechanical and this may need cooling
measures to be implemented. Products that are released by eukaryotes are subject to degradation by
the hydrolytic enzymes and this damage can be reduced by adding of enzyme inhibitors, rapid
processing and cooling of the cell extract.
Both mechanical and non mechanical means can be used to achieve cell disruption. The disruption
processes can be measured in terms of quantity by monitoring changes in absorbance, total protein
concentration, particle size or the activity of specific enzymes.
The following are methods for cell disruption in downstream processing
Mechanical cell disruption
Non mechanical cell disruption
There are several mechanical methods involved in cell disruption in downstream processing. There
are those methods based on solid shear and those that are based on liquid shear. The extrusion of
frozen cell preparations via a narrow orifice in high pressure is involved in solid shear. This method is
suitable in laboratory operations but not at factory level. Liquid shear methods are more effective.
Non mechanical cell disruptions are downstream processing methods that are alternative to
mechanical methods. This involves causing cells to be permeable. It can be achieved in several ways
including osmotic shock, autolysis, rupture with crystals or heat shock. More techniques have been
developed for small scale operations.
The main advantage of outsourcing highly potent API (HPAPIs) manufacturers has abolished the need to
fund expensive containment base which can also be multifaceted to engineer install and maintain.
However, unless the particular the pharmacy company has a broad portfolio of HPAPIs in its pipeline for
instance infrastructure may not be fully utilized. Some of the highly potent API manufacturing benefits
Safe synthesis of HPAPIs requires considerable expertise in chemistry and a careful, rigorous approach to
Environmental Health and Safety (EHS). In API manufacturing, few CMO organizations offer the
services due to its high infrastructure costs the assets dedication to its high potency compounds.
Nevertheless, the GMP is required in the high amount to cross contamination within multi-product assets.
Currently, many biotech’s and emerging pharma companies and also CMOs rely broadly on the external
consultants to deliver pharmacological and toxicological guidance which eventually holds a grand final
categorization of an API. Having an in-house categorization expertise for APIs and upstream is very
critical, it ensures the expensive containment infrastructure is utilized where necessary and eventually
optimizes the economics of HPAPI manufacture in turn.
Cross contamination in API manufacturing
In API manufacturing, HPAPIs compliances with particular GMP aspects, this is also vital it helps to
prevent cross contamination between products which could bring severe harm to a patient. the GMP
necessitates the assessment of biological activities of the products produced to guarantee that proper
carry-over limits are set and followed accordingly while cleaning between the products. This has led the
development of cleaning protocols, analytical controls as well as maintenance of safe working practices
be the main elements of the HPAPI business. However, the entire APi manufacturing practices also
require particular expertise. The maximum allowed carryover limits are always severe since it requires the
development a very sensitive analytical methods to make sure all the limits are met.
There are a lot of methods that can be used in plant extraction. It is however for the extractor to
know which methods are suitable.
First of all the plant textile must be pure before the withdrawal. Most strange subject must be
eliminated completely. In plant extraction, you are required to use the correct plant element to get a
quality product in return. Dry the plant material depending on the nature of the chemical compounds.
Cold or hot blowing of air is generally preferred.
Grinding methods need to be specified and the techniques that generate heat should also be avoided at
all cost. Pass all the powdered plant material through suitable sieves to get uniform size of the
required particles. You will require the following nature of constituents;
A non polar solvent may be used in case the therapeutic value lies within non polar solvent.
Extraction methods like cold maceration are preferred when the constituents are thermo labile
while soxhlet extraction is preferred for thermo stable constituents.
When dealing with constituents that degrade when kept in organic solvents, then suitable
precautions should be taken
Higher than needed temperatures should avoided in case of hot extraction because some
glycosides can break upon exposure of higher temperature.
Time of extraction should be standardized.
Quantity of water needed should be specified and controlled
Drying and concentration procedures should ensure the stability and safety of the active
constituents. Although lyophilisation is expensive, it is increasingly employed.
Material fabrication of the extractor and the design are to be taken into consideration.
There should be documentation of the analytical parameters of the final extract to monitor the
quality of extracts in different batches.
Make sure you choose parameters that will give you the best in plant extraction
Scientists normally say that you can meet all your nutritional needs through diet alone theoretically
but practically, most people do not. This is the main reason high potency supplementation comes in.
Probabilities of having a specific diet to meet the recommended dietary allowance for all required
nutrients are extremely unlikely with most people. So while it is theoretically that you can get all
nutrition you need from food. The fact is, most people do not. This is why you need to look for high
potency nutrition to supplement your diet and ensure that you get all the nutrition you need.
Minerals and vitamins serve as essential components in enzymes and coenzymes in the human body.
In order for chemical response needed for a person’s physical function to take place, enzyme
molecules need to get involved. Coenzymes help the enzymes in their reactions. They work together
to either join molecules together or split the molecules apart. Major idea in dietary drug is to provide
required aid or nutrients to permit enzymes work to optimum levels.
Most enzymes should be composed of essential minerals and protein in order to function properly. For
example, the enzymes which make active vitamin A in the ocular procedure is zinc, without zinc, and
then vitamin A is not activated to its lively state. The deficiency of either vitamin A or Zinc can result
into night blindness.
This is the reason why you need to take high potency mineral supplements in order to make sure that
your body is supplied with the needed minerals. Below are some of the importances of minerals in our
Calcium- it is good for healthy teeth and bones
Iron- building muscles naturally
Zinc- helps in growth, immunity and fertility
Magnesium- needed for making protein, nerve transmission and immune system health
Teva API’s headquarter is in Israel. Apart from harbouring its top management, Israel is also
home to its top scientists and best technology. This technology and expertise has been dedicated
to the production of synthetic peptides. This begs the question; why peptides? I am going to tell
you why; peptides are some of the most essential substances in the human body. I know it, you
know it and Teva API knows it too.
With 80 years of experience, Teva API assures its customers of the best quality and full
compliance of all their peptides be it in grams or tons. The best technology and expertise ensure
that the peptides are not only safe and environmentally friendly but also cost effective.
Teva API dedicates itself to meeting your specific requirements with the help of its state-of- the-
art downstream processing technology and innovation. The major peptides offered at TAPI
include Atosiban, Acetate, Bivalirudin, Desmopressin, Octreotide, Teriparatide, and Exenatide
Uses of Peptides
All this expertise, technology and articulation cannot be dedicated to a product if it is not
essential. So let’s look at some of the uses of peptides and maybe you will understand why TAPI
lavishes such attention on them. Some of the uses of peptides include:-
– Production of enzymes- enzymes are essential for most of the internal body functions.
Peptides ensure that your body has a steady amount of enzymes at all times
– Anti- aging- your skin will remain smooth and maintain its youth and grace if you have
the right amount of peptides in your body.
– Being precursors of proteins, peptides aid in body building.
TAPI offers the best there is in peptides. This is because they care about your health and you in
general. With their know-how and technology coupled with care for human kind, you are assured
of a competitive advantage over the entire product cycle
The first step or stage of the downstream processing is called Solid-Liquid Separation. Solid-Liquid
Separation includes the breaking of the cells and elements that are insoluble from the fermentation broth.
If the task is to produce an intracellular metabolite, then the intracellular metabolite has to be released
from the cells before the Solid-Liquid Separation process.
Some biologist instead of using the term Solid-Liquid Separation that refers to the separation of insoluble
elements from the fermentation broth use the harvesting term of the microbial cells.
There are several methods that are used in Stage I of the downstream processing, and those methods are:
When we introduce a particular gas into the liquid broth, the gas produces bubbles in the liquid broth.
Solid particles and the cells in the liquid broth get adsorbed on the gas bubbles. The gas bubbles that form
in the liquid broth rise to the foam layer, and when they do so, they can be then removed and collected.
The foam, from which the gas bubbles are collected, that forms in the liquid broth, is facilitated by the
presence of certain substances known as collector substances.
The usual collector substances that facilitate the foam formation are long chain fatty acids and amines.
During the flocculation phase of Solid-Liquid Separation, the cells form large accumulations to settle
down for the easy removal.
Flocculation phase strictly depends on the cell nature and the ionic constitution of the medium.
The third subphase of the downstream processing process of Solid-Liquid Separation is Filtration.
Filtration is used for separating the biomass and filtrate.
Centrifugation is the fourth and the last process of the first stage of downstream processing called Solid-
Liquid Separation. Centrifugation technique is used for the separation of solid particles from the liquid
API Manufacturing procedure is very critical to ensure the perfect elements and their making. In order to
do so there are some of the Obligations of the Quality Unit in API Manufacturing.
The quality unit ought to be required in all quality-related matters. The quality unit ought to survey and
favor all fitting quality-related archives. The principle obligations of the free quality unit ought not to be
designated. These obligations ought to be portrayed in composing and ought to incorporate however not
fundamentally be constrained in some of the API manufacturing procedure
Discharging or dismissing all APIs. Building up a framework to discharge or reject crude
materials, intermediates, bundling what’s more, marking materials.
Exploring finished clump creation and lab control records of basic process ventures before arrival
of the API manufacturing for circulation.
Affirmation of all particulars and expert generation directions and all methods affecting the
nature of intermediates or APIs.
Ensuring that inner and external reviews (self-assessments) are performed. Supporting changes that
conceivably affect middle of the road or API quality. Evaluating and endorsing approval conventions and
report. Ensuring that quality related objections are explored and determined. Ensuring that powerful
frameworks are utilized for keeping up and adjusting basic hardware and those materials are fittingly tried
and the outcomes are accounted for it.
Performing item quality audits
Such substances are wanted to equip pharmacological activity then again other direct effect in the
conclusion, cure, lightening, treatment, or repugnance of disorder or to impact the structure and limit of
the body. The framework for overseeing quality ought to incorporate the authoritative structure, systems,
procedures and assets, and in addition exercises important to guarantee certainty that the API will meet its
planned particulars for quality and virtue. All quality related exercises ought to be characterized and
APIs can be defined as those as single substances or a mixture of substances which are used to produce a
restorative product or a medicine. There are several methods of producing these types of medicines such
as by fermentation, compound amalgamation, extraction from natural products.
API Production can be performed by using intermediates, raw materials, or different APIs which are
blend together into the API structure. Those materials may differ from a wide range of chemical having
various properties and structure, to blood and plasma, or subsidiaries.
As per the recent current Good Manufacturing Practice or cGMP, controls and guidelines the
manufacturing, utilization and testing of medication items and their parts, including Active
Pharmaceutical Ingredients or API production expected for use in people. APIs manufactured as per the
cGMP guidelines for clinical exploration or business deal must meet prerequisites for personality, quality,
strength and purity.
The type of equipments and their facilities which are used to blend these intermediates or the APIs might
influence the quality of the final product. Even the surrounding environment plays and important role in
producing, bundling and storing the medicines.
Equipments used for mixing the APIs and intermediates should have proper design & size, and known for
its usage, purification, maintenance and cleaning.
It’s important to keep the structures clean and disinfected while manufacturing the APIs used for the
sterile therapeutic items, so that no infection can be spread because of it. Therefore it’s important to look
for a reliable API production firm which can do that. Always prefer to work with those API production
firms which produces quality products.
In today’s time many firms are into this business but not every one of them is legit or reliable, it’s your
responsibility to select the one which is reliable as well as known for providing the best quality of APIs.