Different chromatography techniques as used in downstream processing

Posted by admin on October 13, 2016 in Uncategorized |

Higher value products demand for chromatographic techniques. The techniques are used for

concentration, de salting and purification of protein preparation. When choosing a chromatographic

technique, a number of factors need to be put into consideration. These factors may include iso-

electric point, biological affinity, hydro-phobicity and molecular weight in proteins. Each of the above

properties can be exploited by different specific chromatographic methods. The following are the

chromatographic parameters that need to be considered; recovery, capacity and resolving power.

The following are different types of chromatography used in downstream processing

 Adsorption chromatography

 Affinity chromatography

 Gel filtration chromatography

 Ion exchange chromatography

 High performance liquid chromatography

 Distillation

 Ion exchange chromatography

In adsorption chromatography, separation is done according to affinity of protein or any other

material. Affinity chromatography is a powerful and a highly selective technique of purification that

results in several purifications in a single step. This method is however expensive on industrial scale.

Affinity chromatography technique involves chemical interaction between solute molecules.

Gel filtration chromatography in downstream processing involves the separation on the basis of size

of the molecules. Molecular shape can also influence the process. Ion exchange involves selective

adsorption of electrically charged compounds. The compounds are adsorbed on the ion exchange resin

particles and this is done by electrostatic forces. High performance liquid chromatography is used to

separate proteins in aqueous solutions.

Dialysis and electro dialysis is a membrane separation technique that is used for the removal of

solutes that are low in weight and ions that are inorganic from a solution. The membranes are very

selective to size. Distillation is useful in downstream processing in recovering fuel alcohol and other

solvents from the media of fermentation. This is helpful in the production of potable spirits. Batch

distillation is useful in production of some whiskies although for continuous distillation is a method of

choice for other purposes.

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